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CSS3 Flexbox属性用法大全 CSS3 Flexbox各种属性详解

时间:2017-01-04 00:00:00 编辑:简简单单 来源:转载

    Flexbox布局,正式的叫法是CSS Flexible Box Layout Module。它是CSSS3里引入的一种新布局,旨在更方便的对容器里的元素进行排列、对齐、排序等,尤其是当不知道他们的大小或者动态尺寸的时候。具有flex布局特征的元素的基本特征是,它能在不同的屏幕尺寸下让它的子元素以最佳的布局填充整个有效空间。

    很多网页设计师和Web开发者都发现,flex布局非常容易使用,通过简单的代码能对元素进行复杂的定位布局,使网页开发变得更高效。Flexbox布局算法的中心思想是方向,这跟以往的block和inline的纵向和横向布局不同。flexbox布局适合用在页面里的小元素上,如果是大方面的布局,使用CSS Grid Layout Module更合适。

    本文并不是试图讲解flexbox布局里的各种属性如何工作,而是用图解的方式介绍flexbox里的各种属性和属性值如何让布局起变化,以及如何变化。

#基础知识

    在开始介绍flexbox的各种属性前,让我们先了解一下flexbox模型。flexbox布局由一个父元素容器(flex容器)和它的直接子元素(flex子元素)组成。

1.jpg

    在上面的图表中,我们看到了用来描述flex父容器和flex子元素的各种属性和属于的叫法。其它更多的语义你可以参考官方flexbox model文档。

    flexbox布局的规范从2009年起,经历了数次修订和变更,所以,为了避免混淆,我们使用的语法都是来自最近的最新规范草案(2014年9月)。

    各种浏览器对最近出了的flexbox规范的兼容情况

  •                 Chrome 29+

  •                 Firefox 28+

  •                 Internet Explorer 11+

  •                 Opera 17+

  •                 Safari 6.1+ (prefixed with-webkit-)

  •                 Android 4.4+

  •                 iOS 7.1+ (prefixed with-webkit-)

    你还可以从这里查看详细的浏览器支持和 兼容情况。

#用法介绍

    想要实现flexbox布局,我们只需要修改一下网页元素的display属性:

    .flex-container {

    display: -webkit-flex; /* Safari */

    display: flex;

    }

    对于inline元素,可以这样写:

    .flex-container {

    display: -webkit-inline-flex; /* Safari */

    display: inline-flex;

    }

    注意:你只需要给父元素添加这一个属性,它的所有直接子元素都会自动成为flex子元素。

    可以有很多方式来划分flexbox的各种属性,但目前为止,我们发现,这最简单易懂的方式是把这些属性分成flex父容器属性和flex子元素属性两组。下面,我们就开始用图像来解释这些属性是如何影响布局的。

#针对Flexbox父容器元素的属性

#flex-direction

    This property specifies how flex items are laid out in the flex container, by setting the direction of the flex container’s main axis. They can be laid out in two main directions, like rows horizontally or like columns vertically.

    可选值:

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-flex-direction: row; /* Safari */

    flex-direction:     row;

    }

    Withrowdirection the flex items are stacked in a row from left-to-right inltrcontext

2.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-flex-direction: row-reverse; /* Safari */

    flex-direction:     row-reverse;

    }

    Withrow-reversedirection the flex items are stacked in a row from right-to-left inltrcontext

3.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-flex-direction: column; /* Safari */

    flex-direction:     column;

    }

    Withcolumndirection the flex items are stacked in a column from top-to-bottom

4.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-flex-direction: column-reverse; /* Safari */

    flex-direction:     column-reverse;

    }

    Withcolumn-reversedirection the flex items are stacked in a column from bottom-to-top

5.jpg

    缺省值:row

    注意:rowandrow-reverseare dependent of the writing mode so inrtlcontext they will be reversed respectively.

#flex-wrap

    The initial flexbox concept is the container to set its items in one single line. Theflex-wrapproperty controls if the flex container lay out its items in single or multiple lines, and the direction the new lines are stacked in.

    可选值:

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-flex-wrap: nowrap; /* Safari */

    flex-wrap:     nowrap;

    }

    Flex items are displayed in one row, by default they are shrunk to fit the flex container’s width

6.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-flex-wrap: wrap; /* Safari */

    flex-wrap:     wrap;

    }

    Flex items are displayed in multiple rows if needed from left-to-right and top-to-bottom

7.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-flex-wrap: wrap-reverse; /* Safari */

    flex-wrap:     wrap-reverse;

    }

    Flex items are displayed in multiple rows if needed from left-to-right and bottom-to-top

8.jpg

    缺省值:nowrap

    注意:These properties are dependent of the writing mode so inrtlcontext they will be reversed respectively.

#flex-flow

    This property is a shorthand for setting theflex-directionandflex-wrapproperties.

    可选值:

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-flex-flow:||; /* Safari */

    flex-flow:||;

    }

    缺省值:row nowrap

#justify-content

    Thejustify-contentproperty aligns flex items along the main axis of the current line of the flex container. It helps distribute left free space when either all the flex items on a line are inflexible, or are flexible but have reached their maximum size.

    可选值:

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-justify-content: flex-start; /* Safari */

    justify-content:     flex-start;

    }

    Flex items are aligned to the left side of the flex container inltrcontext

9.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-justify-content: flex-end; /* Safari */

    justify-content:     flex-end;

    }

    Flex items are aligned to the right side of the flex container inltrcontext

10.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-justify-content: center; /* Safari */

    justify-content:     center;

    }

    Flex items are aligned at the center of the flex container

11.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-justify-content: space-between; /* Safari */

    justify-content:     space-between;

    }

    Flex items are displayed with equal spacing between them, first and last flex items are aligned to the edges of the flex container

12.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-justify-content: space-around; /* Safari */

    justify-content:     space-around;

    }

    Flex items are displayed with equal spacing around every flex item, even the first and last flex items

13.jpg

    缺省值:flex-start

#align-items

    Flex items can be aligned in the cross axis of the current line of the flex container, similar tojustify-contentbut in the perpendicular direction. This property sets the default alignment for all flex items, including the anonymous ones.

    可选值:

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-items: stretch; /* Safari */

    align-items:     stretch;

    }

    Flex items fill the whole height (or width) fromcross starttocross endof the flex container

14.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-items: flex-start; /* Safari */

    align-items:     flex-start;

    }

    Flex items are stacked to thecross startof the flex container

15.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-items: flex-end; /* Safari */

    align-items:     flex-end;

    }

    Flex items are stacked to thecross endof the flex container

16.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-items: center; /* Safari */

    align-items:     center;

    }

    Flex items are stacked to the center of thecross axisof the flex container

17.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-items: baseline; /* Safari */

    align-items:     baseline;

    }

    Flex items are aligned in a way that their baselines are aligned

18.jpg

    缺省值:stretch

    注意:Read more details about how baselines are calculatedhere.

    #align-content

    Thealign-contentproperty aligns a flex container’s lines within the flex container when there is extra space in the cross-axis, similar to howjustify-contentaligns individual items within the main-axis.

    可选值:

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-content: stretch; /* Safari */

    align-content:     stretch;

    }

    Flex items are displayed with distributed space after every row of flex items

19.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-content: flex-start; /* Safari */

    align-content:     flex-start;

    }

    Flex items are stacked toward thecross startof the flex container

20.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-content: flex-end; /* Safari */

    align-content:     flex-end;

    }

    Flex items are stacked toward thecross endof the flex container

21.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-content: center; /* Safari */

    align-content:     center;

    }

    Rows of flex items are stacked in the center of thecross axisof the flex container

22.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-content: space-between; /* Safari */

    align-content:     space-between;

    }

    Rows of flex items are displayed with equal spacing between them, first and last rows are aligned to the edges of the flex container

23.jpg

    .flex-container {

    -webkit-align-content: space-around; /* Safari */

    align-content:     space-around;

    }

    Flex items are displayed with equal spacing around every row of flex items.

24.jpg

    缺省值:stretch

    注意:This property has only effect when the flex container has multiple lines of flex items. If they are placed in single line this property has no effect on the layout.

#Note for flex containers

  •                 all of thecolumn-*properties have no effect on a flex container.

  •                 the::first-lineand::first-letterpseudo-elements do not apply to flex containers.

#针对Flexbox子元素的属性

#order

    The order property controls the order in which children of a flex container appear inside the flex container. By default they are ordered as initially added in the flex container.

    可选值:

    .flex-item {

    -webkit-order:; /* Safari */

    order:;

    }

    Flex items can be reordered with this simple property, without restructuring the HTML code

25.jpg

    缺省值:0

#flex-grow

    This property specifies the flex grow factor, which determines how much the flex item will grow relative to the rest of the flex items in the flex container when positive free space is distributed.

    可选值:

    .flex-item {

    -webkit-flex-grow:; /* Safari */

    flex-grow:;

    }

    If all flex items have same value forflex-growthan all items have same size in the container

26.jpg

    缺省值:0

    注意:Negative numbers are invalid.

#flex-shrink

    Theflex-shrinkspecifies the flex shrink factor, which determines how much the flex item will shrink relative to the rest of the flex items in the flex container when negative free space is distributed.

    可选值:

    .flex-item {

    -webkit-flex-shrink:; /* Safari */

    flex-shrink:;

    }

    By default all flex items can be shrunk, but if we set it to 0 (don’t shrink) they will maintain the original size

27.jpg

    缺省值:1

    注意:Negative numbers are invalid.

#flex-basis

    This property takes the same values as thewidthandheightproperties, and specifies the initial main size of the flex item, before free space is distributed according to the flex factors.

    可选值:

    .flex-item {

    -webkit-flex-basis: auto |; /* Safari */

    flex-basis:     auto |;

    }

    flex-basisis specified for the 4th flex item and dictates the initial size of the element

28.jpg

    缺省值:auto

    注意:There is a namingissuewith theautovalue which will be resolved in future.

#flex

    This property is the shorthand for theflex-grow,flex-shrinkandflex-basisproperties. Among other values it also can be set toauto(1 1 auto) andnone(0 0 auto).

    .flex-item {

    -webkit-flex: none | auto | [? ||]; /* Safari */

    flex:     none | auto | [? ||];

    }

    缺省值:0 1 auto

    注意:W3C encourages to use the flex shorthand rather than the separate component properties, as the shorthand correctly resets any unspecified components to accommodatecommon uses.

#align-self

Thisalign-selfproperty allows the default alignment (or the one specified byalign-items) to be overridden for individual flex items. Refer toalign-itemsexplanation forflex containerto understand the available values.

    可选值:

    .flex-item {

    -webkit-align-self: auto | flex-start | flex-end | center | baseline | stretch; /* Safari */

    align-self:     auto | flex-start | flex-end | center | baseline | stretch;

    }

    The 3rd and 4th flex items have overridden alignment through thealign-selfproperty

29.jpg

    缺省值:auto

    注意:The value ofautoforalign-selfcomputes to the value ofalign-itemson the element’s parent, orstretchif the element has no parent.

#Note for flex items

  •                 float,clearandvertical-alignhave no effect on a flex item, and do not take it out-of-flow.

#Flexbox布局测试页面

    你可以从GitHub上获取测试也的源代码。

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